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Tuesday, November 15, 2016

What's De monetisation means for a common Man ?

De Monetisation : What difference it's make for a common man ?

As an aspiring Bureaucrat may be you think my view is biased towards Government,
but fats are facts.

The withdrawal of 500 and 1000 rupee notes will certainly help economy. It's directly assault the Money laundering as they hold billions roughly 2 lakh crore a very very conservative estimate of rupees in cash. Black money  will be wiped out from our economy, as they have no chance to exchange.

The RBI will issue any notes with a legal tender, roughly 17 lakh crore is in the form of 1000 and 500 rupees notes. Due to this demonetisation at max we will get back 10 to 12 lack crore back into the system with new notes. then what is the fate of remaining 5 to 7 lakh crore. It's a net profit to the RBI.. The RBI can issue this money back in to the system by paying back to government as Dividend.
So Union Government get 7 lacks crore in its kitty.

BUT THE COMMON MAN IS SUFFERING. GOVERNMENT GETS MONEY but WHAT I AS A COMMON MAN will GET. I AM STANDING IN QUE's FOR HOURS AND HOURS.

Any army men also doesnot have any personal enimity with Terrorist and Pak Army but why he need to die in Uri Attacks like incidents.

So Dear common MAN ( including me),

Government hadn't taken this action as one stroke if you clearly absorb a series of action had taken to streamline this process.

1) PMJDY - Opening of bank accounts to all un banked section of India roughly 21.6 crore. So they can have bank accounts to deposit and exchange money. Rupay cards are also given to this accounts.
So if hadn't open the account sorry it's your mistake some extent and officers too.

2) Seeding of AADHAR to all accounts and PAN to most of them, to trace each of the account for all means, even  with legislative backing.

3) IDS Scheme To give final to correct their mistake and make there money white.

4) Master stroke De Monetisation.
Apart of all these Government is pushing for DIGITAL INDIA, online money transactions Digital payments systems. As a part of this move RBI brought UNIFIED PAYMENT INTERFACE.

Hope you find a link of all this actions now...

Q) But most of the money is in Swiss bank and in Benami properties.

Yes, It is. As per the Transparency International - Global Corruption perception Index India rank 76 out of 170 nations, We had improved our rank about 16 places from past two years. A conservative estimate of 400 billion dollars would be black money in India. But we have Benami transaction law is in place Supreme Court has already formed SIT on it. We had already made amendment to Bilateral Investment treaty to. Mauritius which apply to Singapore too. So they won't be any TREATY SHOPPING.   Apart of all that, Modi already hinted that it's just the beginning more is coming out. So, sure they are enough actions are already in pipeline.

Government efforts to bring Real estate regulator will help to reduce the black money  in this sector.

The ongoing elections especially UP  and other 5 states will get rid of free flow of black money. As we all know what the election really means in India.. Buying and Selling.

LET COMES TO GOVERNMENT KITTY AGAIN THE SO CALLED 5 to 7 lacks crore.
Government can use this money first to Re-capitalise Banks with 2 lacks crore.
Remaining money is used for HOUSING FOR ALL Scheme,So 3 crore houses to all by 2022. It's will boost the Cement, transport, Real-estate,Banking, Steel and many sectors so supplementary benefit boost to economy and More and More JOBS.

New Colleges Schools and Hospitals, Ports and Railways all will have spill over effects on economy. Just refer the China crack down on Corruption along with past stories of Singapore and Thailand.

Internationally it will boost India status as corruption free and transparent economy so More Investment One of the reason why we are poorly performing in Global competitiveness report and Ease of Doing business rankings.

The irony is even the worlds media like China's Global times and Singapore press is praising this move but we as Indias unable to support this.

You can see the result here:
RBI has recently published information about the money deposited in the banks in 3 days,
(amounts in crores)'
Top 10 banks:
1. SBI                                 53,652
2. Central bank of India 49,644
3. PNB                               42,877
4. HDFC                            39,548
5. ICICI                              32,867
6. Bank of India               29,876
7. Bank of Baroda           25,765
8. Axis Bank                     18,768
9. Union Bank                  16,555
10. Andhra Bank             14,321

Amount deposited in Post offices                               36,009 Crores.

More and more money to the banking system. So what is for a common man to celebrate. Yes, he has, It will helps the banks to decrease the INTEREST rates, a direct benefit to common man. now he can get money to his plans of Higher education, New own home, for business and for others.

See how the news are coming more and more JANDHAN accounts which are laying at zero balance sometime back now getting 49000 rupees each because if you deposit 5000 you need to give PAN number. They can use this money by themselves if the original holder of the money ask for return simply call the Tax men they will help you.

Dear India's , We bearded the plunder of British for 200 years. We seen scams right for Mundhra Scam, Jeep scam from the very year of Independence to recent Coal - 2 lacks crore 2G -1.76 lack crore etc.
India is home for 40 % of undernourished children in South Asia, 37 % of our children are shunted and 22 % wasted. We have 21.9 % of poverty even if you take 40/- for urban areas and 28 rupees for rural areas per capita daily expenditure.
If you consider world bank 1.25 $ as bench mark we may easily end and 40%.

We have 18% of population of World (125 crore) with just 2.6 % of land mass. We all know how hard it is to earn a daily meal to our tummy.
As I preparing for Civil services I deeply analysed and read about what the INDIA is.

It's IMPOSSIBLE TO ANY ONE TO CHANGE THIS COUNTRY WITH OUT ANY PAIN IN JUST A NIGHT. ITS NEEDS TIME. LET SUPPORT THIS MOVE. WE ALL ARE VICTIMS OF CORRUPTION ONE DAY AN ANOTHER.
By this move if at least 1000 crore of corrupted money will come out.. Then Yes we are in right path.

Sunday, October 9, 2016

AIR spotlight summary on “India ratifies Paris climate Agreement” : Insights

Introduction
India ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change by depositing the instrument of ratification with the United Nations on the 147th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. India is the 62nd country to ratify the agreement. The agreement will enter into force one month after 55 countries that account for 55 percent of global emissions ratify the agreement.
Paris Agreement on Climate Change
  • This treaty which was agreed in Paris convention took 20 years to come to an agreement. There were divergent views, particularly among the industrialised countries and developing countries. Ironing out of differences took lot of time. The treaty has come out that there is auniversal need and acceptance that something has to be done to contain the rise of the global temperature within 2 degree centigrade.
  • For its operationalisation, the Paris Agreement requires the signing and ratification by at least 55 countries which together account for at least 55 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Both conditions need to be met. Once these conditions are fulfilled, the Agreement would come into effect regardless of the number of countries that remain outside. The Agreement only needs slightly more than 3 percentage points to reach the 55 per cent threshold.     
  • The Green Climate Fund is too small as compared to the needs and programmes that are envisaged. It is important that the developed countries should pass on the technology, knowhow, and wherewithal for having energy efficient technologies.
  • Kyoto protocol had an unfortunate fate. Countries have not adhered to their commitments and have full faulted on that. That is reason we find continuous CO2 emissions.
  • The COP-22 will be held in morocco. The information and the experience will be exchanged and get to know the ways and means to achieve the targets.
Significance of the ratification of Paris Agreement
  • This is been the major and seminal development to maintain the global climate and reducing the growing temperature which is really a great threat to the mankind, livelihood, health and productivity of the biosphere.
  • IPCC study says that beyond 2 degree centigrade rise of the earth’s temperature, then it would be difficult situation, irreversible and will go out of hand.
  • All the countries which have submitted their INDCs will be taken on board and they have the commitment to adhere to INDCs and take corresponding measures in their countries to meet those expected commitments. India has to work hard to achieve the commitments made.
India’s Role
  • India’s commitments of 100 GW of solar energy, 60 GW of wind energy and by 2022 we would have about 40% of our energy needs to be met from non-fossil fuel energy sources.
  • NITI Ayog study says that with the growth scenario of 8%, our energy needs would grow and even then India won’t be high CO2 emitter. It would be much less than the global average. The global average would be 5 to 6 tonnes per capita while we would not exceed more than 4.4 tonnes.
  • India needs finance, technology and capacity building support. The climate finance goalsthat have been set have not yet been met.
  • India is working towards replacing fossil fuels with non fossil fuel sources and increasing the energy efficiency. More than 6.5 crores LED bulbs are distributed and this has resulted into more than 4000 MW of electricity saving and saving on per day expenditure. The greening of highways, where plantation of trees is envisaged which will sequester the CO2.
  • Industry is progressively improving on energy intensity. We have to continue to make our progress to achieve the targets and demonstrate to the public and world at large that we are able to do it.
  • India ratified the agreement on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi who led a simple life and who exemplified simplicity. Through this the world is getting a message that there is a need for change in life style particularly the developed world where their lifestyle is considered extravagant.
  • Without losing much it is possible to contain our energy use and emission of CO2. The underlying message of using this day is only to say that the idealism of Mahatma Gandhi is really helpful, provide a philosophical support and guide to contain our energy needs, at the same time improve the quality of life and welfare of the people.
  • The silver lining is that the prizes of solar energy is coming down which instils hope to make faster progress. The targets on generating energy through renewable has to be revised upwards.

India and Sri lanka relations : Insights

Introduction
Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe visited India to discuss wide range of issues and to attend India Economic Summit.  His visit assumes significance as India had pulled out of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Summit, scheduled to be held in Islamabad in November.
The issue on SAARC Summit
  • India first decided that it will not attend the SAARC summit. That was immediately followed by Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The statement made by Sri Lanka was significant. It said the conditions are not conducive to hold a successful summit.
  • Bangladesh Prime minister said that the SARCC process is jeopardised and is not good for the region and smaller countries get adversely affected. There is much tension between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Historical and Cultural Relations
  • The ties between both the countries are very old. 70% of Sri Lankans are Theravada Buddhist and Emperor Ashoka’s son Mahinda who took Buddhism to Sri Lanka. For many matters in terms of Buddhism we find excellent records in Sri Lanka.
  • Large number of tourists especially Buddhists visit
  • Even during freedom struggle there was close cooperation between Sri Lankan leaders and Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru.
Economic Relations
  • India has strong and well structured bilateral relation with Sri Lanka. We have FTA between both the countries which are doing very well. We should strengthen SARRC, but if there are difficulties we should follow bilateral route and pursue our goals.
  • India has been a major giver of development loans and line of credit to Sri Lanka. Almost one-sixth of India’s development loans go to Sri Lanka.
  • There is considerable private sector investment from India in Sri Lanka and from Sri Lanka into India. The areas both of cooperation between both the countries are petroleum, Information Technology, Financial Services, Real estate, telecom, hospitals, tourism, banking, food processing etc.
  • Sri Lanka has invested in Vishakhapatnam in garments. So it is a two way relationship which is a sustainable one.
  • Indian railways are offering special package for Sri Lankan tourists to come to India. India has introduced e-visa for Sri Lanka. Indians find Sri Lanka very attractive.
  • Sri Lanka is the closest friend and neighbour. In 2014 our bilateral trade was $4.6 billion. India is the fourth biggest investor in Sri Lanka. Since 2003 we have invested about $1 billion in Sri Lanka.
Political Relations
  • The President and Prime minister team of Sri Lanka is having good rapport with Indian leadership.
Fishermen Issue
  • The constant and frequent issue of fisherman and recently 5 Indian fishermen were picked up by the Sri Lankan Navy. The fishermen dispute is inevitable between neighbours. Indian Fishermen entering Sri Lankan water is not with any particular intention. What is important is that the two governments and the fishermen associations of both the sides must take care of these incidents and can be contained.     
  • Both countries have signed an MOU to equip the fishermen and give them nets and necessary things to help them carry out their trade better and more peacefully.
  • Sri Lanka has taken the position that big fishing trawlers should not be used which is scientific and without which we may lose the fish yield.
Developments in Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka has progressed in the Health sector. When they became independent, they were supposed to be one of the worst affected regions affected by malaria. Now they are declaredmalaria free. This is a lesson to be learnt for India.
  • Social development indicators are quite high in literacy, health indicators, etc. They have made considerable progress.
Conclusion
Both countries are firm in maintaining their Democracy. There is scope for making the relationship richer, broadening and deepening it.

Friday, September 16, 2016

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES EXAM RESULT 2016

UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Exam 2016 Result is Out. Can be checked at:

http://www.upsc.gov.in/sites/default/files/wr_csp2016_eng_0.pdf


I qualified for mains... Expect cutoff at 118 around. I scored more 126

Sriram's IAS Questions and Answers

Ethics and Integrity
Propriety and Public Life
Propriety means conformity to established standards of morals and appropriateness for the purpose or circumstances; suitability
rightness or justness. It is an essential attribute of those in public service.
The meaning of the term propriety encompasses ‘appropriateness’, ‘rightness’, ‘correctness in behaviour or morals’, ‘conformity with convention in conduct’, ‘the standards of behaviour considered correct by society’. The core principles of the concept of propriety could be summarised as under:

v Integrity
v Openness
v Objectivity
v Honesty
v Selflessness
The concept of propriety can be related to various other concepts. To list a few:

v Accountability
v Legality
v Probity
v Value for money
v Fraud & Corruption
v Governance

Though the concept of propriety is generally associated with public sector activities, the time has now come to apply this concept even in the private sector. With the changing environment, there is a greater emphasis on conformance with prescribed values, customs, procedures and practices, keeping in mind the public interest.
In India there is a Statement of Judicial Values that sets high benchmarks for judicial behaviour in line with propriety.
The Civil Service Code sets out the standards of behaviour expected of all civil servants, for example, participation of government servants in political activities and attendance by government servants at political meetings.
No member of the Civil Service shall use his position or influence directly or indirectly to secure employment for any member of his family with any private undertaking or Non- Government Organisation.
Civil servants should not abuse office and official power.
Auditors and companies also have demands of propriety. For example, recent examples of Nestle's Maggi being contaminated and the auditors of Satyam Computer Services Ltd overlooking best practices.
* Fallout of Sushma Swaraj episode

Que. How does one resolve the “Calorie Consumption Puzzle” in the case of India?
Ans. India's “Calorie Consumption Puzzle” has attracted the attention of many scholars in recent years. The relevant question is: why has the country’s nutritional intake been declining over the past few decades while people’s purchasing power is increasing. When it is generally true that richer people consume more calories, why is the Indian trend the opposite? Why do China and Vietnam show normal trend of rising food consumption with growth while only India is going the other way?
Several explanations for the puzzle have been offered by researchers. One theory that has become popular is declining calorie needs – people are choosing to consume fewer calories since they need less energy as s the workforce shifts from physically demanding agricultural work to while collar occupations in cities and as agriculture becomes mechanised, calorie requirements of the population are expected to decline. Another explanation centres on diseases such as diarrhoea that result in loss of energy. Greater availability of safe drinking water and better sanitation in India has led to better epidemiological conditions, resulting in fewer cases of diarrhoea and other diseases, and ultimately leading to falling calorie requirements.
Other explanations include increase in food inflation, supplies not matching demand in protein food, vegetarianism that shifts from cereals but can’t have protein as it costs more nor meat, voluntary choice of luxuries like TVs over food, and underreporting of calorie intake due to eating outside the home.

Que. Write on Sufism in Indias: Its origins, Main Silsilas and Impact
Ans. The early Sufi mystics stressed on the virtues of repentance, abstinence, renunci­ation, poverty and trust in God. The early Sufis were wanderers but in due course of time the Sufi groups had become orders and we notice the formation of Sufi orders or Salsilas. After the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, many Sufi orders were established in different parts of India and Sufism became very influential by the 14th century. They believed in the equality of all human beings and brotherhood of man. Their concept of universal brotherhood and the humanitarian ideas of the Sufi saints attracted the Indian mind. A movement similar to Sufism, called the Bhakti cult, was already afoot in India on the eve of the Muslim conquest of the country. The liberal-minded Sufis were, therefore, welcomed in India. The Sufi movement proved very helpful in bridging the gap between the followers of the two religions and in bringing the Hindus and the Muslims together.
Three of the most important Silsilas during the period of the Sultanate are as follows:
1.    The Suhrawardi Silsila which was founded in India by Shaik Bahauddin Zakaria (AD 1182-1262).After his death in 1236 A.D., his devotees continued to celebrate an annual Urs festival at Ajmer.
2.    Nizamuddin Auliya. He led a simple austere life and lived in Delhi. By his vast learning, religious knowledge, and tolerant attitude to all religions, he earned devotion of both the Hindu and Muslim masses.
3.    The Chisti Silsila introduced in India by Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti, who died in AD 1236. Even today he is venerated by Muslims and his tomb is located at Ajmer, which became a sacred pilgrimage. Besides the above two orders, there existed the orders of the Firdausi, the Qadiri, the Shatauri, Qalandari, etc.
While Sufism reached India in the 12th century A.D, ts influence grew considerably during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In India, Chisti and Suhrawardi Silsila were most prominent.
A critical study of the tenets of Sufism indicates that it was acquainted with Hinduism and Hindu thought and had imbibed certain elements of Indian idealism and adopted many Yogic practices and also was influenced by Upanishadic idealism and Vedanta.
The early Sufis were not only ascetics but also lived a life of voluntary poverty shunning all types of worldly pleasures. Khwaja Fariduddin, popularly known as Baba declared, “The main purpose of this path is the concentration of heart which can be achieved only by the abstination from prohibited means of livelihood and association with kings”. Thus, most of the Sufis in India conceived and preached divine unity in terms of idealistic monoism while many Hindus found the Sufi ideas very similar to those of Vedantic philosophy.
The lower strata of Hindu community appear to be greatly attracted by the ideas of social equality and fraternity of Islam. Thus the simplicity, toleration and liberation of the Sufis in India released syncretic forces and led to a sort of cultural synthesis.
The Sufi movement gained impetus during the reign of Akbar who adopted a liberal religious policy under the influence of the Sufi saints.
Abul Fazal had mentioned the existence of 14 Silsilahs in India. A close link that existed between the leader or Pir and his murids or disciples was a vital element of the Sufi system.
The Sufi Movement in India helped in establishing peace and amity among the Hindus and Muslims.
Impact of Sufism
The liberal ideas and unorthodox principles of Sufism had a profound influence on Indian society. The liberal principles of Sufi sects restrained orthodox. Muslims in their attitude and encouraged many Muslim rulers to pursue tolerant attitude to their non-Muslim subjects. Most Sufi saints preached their teachings in the language of common man that contributed greatly to the evolution of various Indian languages like Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Kashmiri and Hindi. The impact of Sufi Movement was deeply felt on some renowned poets of the period, like Amir Khusrau and Malik Muhammad Jayasi who composed poems in Persian and Hindi in praise of Sufi principles.

Que. What is a social dilemma? How is it related to social capital?
Ans. A social dilemma occurs when an individual faces the choice of incurring a personal cost for a greater benefit for others. When social capital (trust, cooperation, understanding and sharing among members of society) is high, individuals are more prepared to incur such individual costs for the greater good; and when most people in society behave in that manner, society as a whole benefits in higher economic productivity, stronger social insurance, greater social resilience to natural hazards, and greater mutual care (such as Good Samaritans coming to the emergency aid of others).
Many social dilemmas occur in countless face to-face encounters in daily life and business dealings. When two individuals engage in a business encounter, there are the possibilities that they may engage in deceitful behavior such as theft, fraud, or even violence. Some of these threats can be controlled by legal contracts, but writing and enforcing contracts can be costly or even impossible in some circumstances. Thus, trust is critical: the confidence that the counterparty will behave honestly or morally and transparently.
Without social trust, a wide range of mutually beneficial economic and social arrangements may be impossible to negotiate, much less to sustain.
Other social dilemmas occur at the societal scale. When social capital is high, individual citizens are more prepared to pay their taxes honestly, more prepared to support investment in public goods, and more likely to support social insurance policies. The Scandinavian countries, with perhaps the highest social capital in the world, also have the most extensive social welfare systems (broadly classified as social democracy). High social capital is conducive to electoral support for a strong social safety net and extensive social services.
Social capital is best built by exemplary laws, execution, systems and behaviour of leaders in all walks of life.

Que. Differences between pre-emptive strike, preventive strike, covert and clandestine operations, under cover operations and hot pursuit. Where does the recent Army operation in Myanmar fit in?
Ans. A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes. The term: 'preemptive war' is sometimes confused with the term: 'preventive war'. The difference is that a preventive war is launched to destroy the potential threat of the targeted party, when an attack by that party is not imminent or known to be planned, while a preemptive war is launched in anticipation of immediate aggression by another party.
A covert operation is "an operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit denial by the sponsor." Covert operations aim to fulfill their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation.
To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, and especially to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence. Traditionally, it is a technique employed by law enforcement agencies or private investigators, and a person who works in such a role is commonly referred to as an undercover agent. It is a part of covert/clandestine operations.
Covert operations and clandestine operations are distinct. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation itself."
An overt operation is one conducted openly, without concealment.
In a covert operation, the identity of the sponsor is concealed, while in a clandestine operation the operation itself is concealed. Put differently, clandestine means "hidden," while covert means "deniable."
What then is stealth? The term stealth refers to tactics aimed at providing and preserving the element of surprise and reducing enemy resistance; and to a set of technologies (stealth technology) to aid in those tactics. Secrecy and stealthiness are often desired in clandestine and covert operations.
Covert operations are employed in situations where openly operating against a target would be disadvantageous. Covert operations may include sabotage, assassinations, support for coups d'├ętat, or support for subversion. Tactics include the use of a false flag or front group.
Hot pursuit implies pursuit without unreasonable delay and generally is immediate pursuit. It can also refer to chasing a suspect into a neighboring jurisdiction in an emergency, without time to alert law enforcement people in that area.
Now, how do we characterise the Indian army's killing of the insurgents in Myanmar? It was clandestine and covert till it lasted. It has become overt when declared. Undercover agents must have been active. Stealth, there was. Hot pursuit, it was not as we did not chase them after they ambushed. We took time to plan and execute. Pre-emptive, it was for future militant actions. The question of it being "preventive" does not arise.

Que. What is the controversy around Monosodium glutamate (MSG) in India and elsewhere?
Ans. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer commonly added to Chinese food, canned vegetables, soups and processed meats. Authorities classified MSG as a food ingredient that's "generally recognized as safe," but its use remains controversial. For this reason, when MSG is added to food, it is required that it be listed on the label.
MSG has been used as a food additive for decades. Over the years, many complaints have been received of adverse reactions to foods containing MSG. These reactions — known as MSG symptom complex — include:
Headache
Sweating
Numbness
Heart palpitations
Chest pain
Nausea
Weakness
However, researchers have found no definitive evidence of a link between MSG and these symptoms. Researchers acknowledge, though, that a small percentage of people may have short-term reactions to MSG. Symptoms are usually mild and don't require treatment. The only way to prevent a reaction is to avoid foods containing MSG.
In May 2015 Food Safety Regulators from the Uttar Pradesh, India found that Maggi 2 Minute Noodles had up to 17 times beyond permissible safe limits of lead in addition to monosodium glutamate in it. On 3 June 2015, New Delhi Government banned the sale of Maggi in New Delhi stores for 15 days because it found lead and monosodium glutamate in the eatable beyond permissible limit. The Gujarat FDA on June 4, 2015 banned the noodles for 30 days after 27 out of 39 samples were detected with objectionable levels of metallic lead, among other things. Some of India's biggest retailers like Future Group, Big Bazaar, Easy day and Nilgiris have imposed a nationwide ban on Maggi. Thereafter multiple state authorities in India found unacceptable amount of lead and it has been banned in many states in India. On June 4 2015 Govt. Of Tamil Nadu also bans maggi and other four brand noodles due to unacceptable amount of lead and other components.
On June 5, 2015, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) ordered recall of all nine approved variants of Maggi instant noodles from India, terming them "unsafe and hazardous" for human consumption. On the same day, Food Safety Agency of United Kingdom launched an investigation to find levels of lead in Maggi noodles. Nepal also indefinitely banned Maggi over concerns about lead levels in the product.
Que. What is lead poisoning and how is it harmful to humans?
Ans. Lead poisoning (also known as plumbism, colica pictorum, saturnism, Devon colic, or painter's colic) is a type of metal poisoning and a medical condition in humans and other vertebrates caused by increased levels of the heavy metal lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, and reproductive and nervous systems. It interferes with the development of the nervous system and is therefore particularly toxic to children, causing potentially permanent learning and behavior disorders. Symptoms include abdominal pain, headache, anemia, irritability, and in severe cases seizures, coma, and death.
Routes of exposure to lead include contaminated air, water, soil, food, and consumer products. One of the largest threats to children is lead paint that exists in many homes. Prevention of lead exposure can range from individual efforts (e.g., removing lead-containing items such as piping or blinds from the home) to nationwide policies (e.g., laws that ban lead in products, reduce allowable levels in water or soil, or provide for cleanup and mitigation of contaminated soil, etc.)
Elevated lead in the body can be detected by the presence of changes in blood cells visible with a microscope and dense lines in the bones of children seen on X-ray. No safe threshold for lead exposure has been discovered—that is, there is no known sufficiently small amount of lead that will not cause harm to the body.

Que. Comment on the causes for the increasing incidence of woman-headed households in India.
Ans. According to census 2011, a little over 13% of households in the country are headed by women. With about four in every ten houses headed by a women, Lakshadweep has the highest proportion of such households. It is followed by Kerala, Goa, Meghalaya and Himachal Pradesh. Apart from the matrilineal tradition, there are other social and economic reasons behind the presence of female headed households. These include widowhood, divorce, separation, migration of male members for long periods and loss of economic ability of males because of disability.

Que Differentiate between "essential amino acids" and others and also define "complete protein".
Ans. Proteins are composed of 21 biological amino acids. 9 of these are “essential amino acids”, which means our bodies cannot produce them, and they must be derived from food sources. The essential amino acids are phenylalanine (25 milligrams per kg of body weight), leucine (39), lysine (30), valine (26), threonine (15), methionine (15), isoleucine (20), histidine (10), and tryptophan (4). When we digest a food with protein, it breaks down into its amino acids, and each is used by the body for slightly different purposes.
A complete protein is one that includes all 9 essential amino acids. Most animal sources are complete proteins, and some plant proteins are as well. By combining several types of plant proteins (beans and rice for example), even non-meat eaters get complete protein.

Que. What is biological value and its importance to diet?
Ans. Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV measures the proportion of this nitrogen absorbed by the body which is then excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. The higher the Biological Value of the protein you use, the more nitrogen your body can absorb, use, and retain. Whey protein has the highest BV value, rating as a 104. Egg protein is only second to whey rating as a 100 with milk proteins being a close third rating as 91Beef rates as an 80 with soy proteins a distant 74. High biological value proteins are provided by animal sources of protein, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt. Low biological value proteins are found in plants, legumes, grains, nuts, seeds and vegetables. The topic assumes relevance in the context of the recent decision of some state governments in India like Madhya Pradesh where egg is being replaced with vegetable and fruit.

Que. Write a short note on “ Goldilocks economy.”*
Ans. In economics, a Goldilocks economy sustains moderate economic growth and low inflation, which allows a market-friendly monetary policy. Goldilocks economy is characterized by a low unemployment rate, increasing asset prices (stocks, real estate, etc.), low interest rates, steady GDP growth and low inflation.
A bullish economy, with steep growth in market values and low losses due to inflation, denotes strong economic growth, though it may lead to rising inflation. In contrast, a bearish economy is the opposite, with stagnant economic performance and inflation rates soaking up any gains. In either extreme, the RBI acts to either cool off or heat up the economy, primarily by raising or lowering the official interest rates. When there is a balance, i.e. not rapid or stagnant growth, but sustained growth and a reasonably low inflation rate, it is a comfortable zone for investors to find long term growth and attractive values in various asset classes. Therefore, experts have labeled this balance between a bull economy and a bear economy, the Goldilocks Economy.
The name Goldilocks economy comes from children's story, The Three Bears, when Goldilocks proclaims that the porridge is "not too hot and not too cold…it is just right." Indeed, with sustained growth and a low inflation rate, the economic is usually considered "just right."
* RBI Governor used the term while delivering the bimonthly credit and monetary policy yesterday.

Que. Is altruism a core value for civil servants? Answer with an introduction of altruism.
Ans. Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness. The word was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte as the opposite of egoism.
Altruism is when we act to promote someone else’s welfare, even at a risk or cost to ourselves. Studies have found that people’s first impulse is to cooperate rather than compete.
Altruism has deep roots in human nature because helping and cooperation promote the survival of our species. Darwin himself argued that altruism, which he called “sympathy” or “benevolence,” is “an essential part of the social instincts.”
This does not mean that humans are more altruistic than selfish; instead, evidence suggests we have deeply ingrained tendencies to act in either direction. Our challenge lies in finding ways to evoke the better angels of our nature.
Individuals come to exhibit charitable, philanthropic, and other pro-social, altruistic actions for the common good both by nature and by training. Moral education, law, civic leadership also establish ethos to develop altruism. Building social capital is crucial for good governance, economic development and social harmony. At its heart lies altruism and cooperation.
In a welfare state like ours that has the responsibility to eradicate poverty; bring about social equality and deliver goods and services to the deprived and vulnerable, civil service has to be altruistic. It is written in the Code as well. The welfare schemes that we have require our Civil Service to be sensitive , compassionate and generous which is the crux of altruism.

Que. Comment on " currency manipulation" and its effects.
Ans. Currency manipulation occurs when countries sell their own currencies in the foreign exchange markets, usually against dollars, to keep their exchange rates weak and the dollar strong. These countries thereby subsidize their exports and raise the price of their imports, sometimes by as much as 30-40%. They strengthen their international competitive positions, increase their trade surpluses and generate domestic production and employment at the expense of others. It becomes competitive devaluation whcih is a form of " Beggar , thy neighbour policy" in which those economies that can afford to devalue lose.
Currency manipulation extends throughout the Pacific Rim: in Japan, where Tokyo’s central bank has printed more yen to help its slumbering economy grow; in China, where the renminbi has long been fixed to the dollar rather than allowed to fluctuate in response to market forces; and in Malaysia, where the government has intervened to protect the ringgit against currency traders.The Swiss National Bank (SNB) undervalued swiss francs saying the high value of the franc is a threat to the economy. The SNB said it would enforce the minimum rate by buying foreign currency in unlimited quantities.
India is running a huge trade deficit with China and is becoming de-industrialised because of the undervaluation of Chinese renminbi through manipulation.
The U.S. trade deficit has been several hundred billion dollars a year higher as a result and lost several million additional jobs during the Great Recession. As a result, it joined the currency wars through QE. Currency manipulation is, by far, the world’s most protectionist international economic policy in the 21st century, but e International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization failed to check it.

Que. What is " big data" ? How is it useful in commerce and governance?
Ans. The basic idea behind the phrase ‘Big Data’ is that everything we do is increasingly leaving a digital trace (or data), which we (and others) can use and analyse. Big Data therefore refers to that data being collected and our ability to make use of it.Data collection itself isn’t new. We as humans have been collecting and storing data since as far back as 18,000 BCE. What’s new are the recent technological advances in chip and sensor technology, the Internet, cloud computing, and our ability to store and analyze data that have changed the quantity of data we can collect.Things that have been a part of everyday life for decades — shopping, listening to music, taking pictures, talking on the phone — now happen more and more wholly or in part in the digital realm, and therefore leave a trail of data.
The other big change is in the kind of data we can analyze.Now data analysts can also look at “unstructured” data like photos, tweets, emails, voice recordings and sensor data to find patterns.
As with any leap forward in innovation, the tool can be used for good or nefarious purposes. Some people are concerned about privacy, as more and more details of our lives are being recorded and analyzed by businesses, agencies, and governments every day.
Companies are using big data to better understand and target customers. Using big data, retailers can predict what products will sell, telecom companies can predict if and when a customer might switch carriers etc.
It’s also used to optimize business processes. Retailers are able to optimize their stock levels based on what’s trending on social media, what people are searching for on the web, or even weather forecasts. Supply chains can be optimized so that delivery drivers use less gas and reach customers faster.
Big data analytics enable us to find new cures and better understand and predict the spread of diseases. Police forces use big data tools to catch criminals and even predict criminal activity and credit card companies use big data analytics to detect fraudulent transactions.
As the tools to collect and analyze the data become less and less expensive and more and more accessible, we will develop more and more uses for it — everything from smart yoga mats to better healthcare tools and a more effective police force.

Que. Is organic farming the answer to climate change?
Ans. Organic farming, as an adaptation strategy to climate change is a concrete and sustainable option and has additional potential as a mitigation strategy. The careful management of nutrients and carbon sequestration in soils are significant contributors in adaptation and mitigation to climate change.
Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions. This is accomplished by using, where possible, cultural, biological, and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials. An organic production system is designed to a) enhance biological diversity within the whole system; b) increase soil biological activity; c) maintain long-term soil fertility; d) recycle wastes of plant and animal origin in order to return nutrients to the land, thus minimizing the use of nonrenewable resources; e) rely on renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems; f) promote the healthy use of soil, water, and air, as well as minimize all forms of pollution thereto that may result from agricultural practices;
Organic farming increases resilience to respond to the risk of climate variability. Where a region relies predominantly on rain fed agriculture, organic farming can respond well to droughts. In India, 60% of agriculture depends on rains. They are prone to drought.Climate change may make drought conditions even more common in the future thereby increasing food insecurity and migration rates.
From field trials conducted in arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid regions of India, it was found that organic farming techniques can improve soil carbon levels by five per cent to 25 per cent and increase the water holding capacity of soils between two per cent to 17 per cent. Organic agriculture provides environmental benefits through the sequestration of atmospheric carbon in soil organic matter.
Soils with higher concentration of carbon content are better able to absorb and retain water because the organic matter acts like `sponge` absorbing excess water and retaining it in the soil. More moisture in the soil is particularly valuable for farmers in drought prone, dry regions.
Organic farming systems also increase biodiversity by cultivating different genetically diverse crop varieties.
Together with using adaptation strategies such as water efficient irrigation techniques and drought tolerant seed varieties, organic farming can help farmers cope with the impacts of the changing climate.

Que. With examples from National Action Plan on Climate Change(NAPCC), differentiate between adaptation and mitigation.
Ans. In 2008, GOI released India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation. The plan identifies eight core “national missions” running through 2017. Most of them address mitigation needs while adaptation issues are also covered.
1. National Solar Mission
2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat( To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:
• Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
• A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste;
• Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and
• Incentives for the use of public transportation)
4. National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.
5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. 
6. National Mission for a “Green India”: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.
While the last Mission addresses both, the last but one Mission is essentially adaptation-centered. Others are primarily mitigation-focused.

Que. In climate talks, the terms adaptation and mitigation are used often. What do they mean? Are they complementary? Give examples.
Ans. The challenge of dealing with the impacts of climate change is framed in terms of adaptation and mitigation. Mitigation involves cutting down emissions and thus reducing the magnitude of climate change itself. Mitigation of climate change means reducing greenhouse gas emissions and taking care of greenhouse gas sinks. Renewable energy, afforestation etc are mitigating agencies.
Adaptation, by contrast, involves efforts to limit our vulnerability to climate change impacts through various measures, while not necessarily dealing with the underlying cause of those impacts. Adaptive measures typically only deal with impacts on humans and not on ecosystems and our environment. Coral reefs, for example, are unlikely to adapt to the twin impacts of global warming and ocean acidification.
Restricting emissions is intended to slow and eventually reverse the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels particularly in the atmosphere. Reducing emissions will affect CO2 levels slowly though because this gas has a long lifetime in the atmosphere. Therefore the effect of reductions in emissions on the average global temperature will not be seen for decades. Thus, mitigation has to coexist with adaptation.
Adaptation means to try to reduce the effects of climate change on vulnerable communities. It is thus preparing for a time when the climate, i.e. the average weather, is markedly different from what we experience today. As a word, “preparedness” describes better the active nature of adaptation; we try to forecast future weather conditions and create structures and operating models which will work in these new conditions.
In agriculture, drought resistant varieties, conservation of water structures etc are adaptation measures. Green Climate Fund
As explained above, Measures to mitigate climate change and to adapt to it complement each other. Without taking measures to mitigate climate change, there is a threat that the average temperature could rise to such levels that people's lives in many regions of the world would be significantly affected or be made impossible. In such a case even adaptation measures would not be able to guarantee everyone’s well-being. Even if emissions were successfully restricted, the slow elimination of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere would affect the climate for decades and centuries. That is why at the local level it is necessary to prepare for the future in any case and attempt to forecast the nature of the change and its effects. Thus some degree of preparation for the future is essential.
Measures to mitigate climate change and to adapt to it generally complement each other. Unless greenhouse gas emissions are mitigated, people's living conditions will become significantly more difficult and adaptation may become impossible in many parts of the globe. Take organic farming , for example, it adapts to climate change by keeping soil moist. At the same time, by avoiding agro chemicals, it also mitigates.
Green Climate Fund (GCF) that is set up internationally is an example for both.

Que. What is a heat wave and its effects? How can we minimise its negative effects on humans?
Ans. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries. While definitions vary,a heat wave is measured relative to the usual weather in the area and relative to normal temperatures for the season. Temperatures that people from a hotter climate consider normal can be termed a heat wave in a cooler area if they are outside the normal climate pattern for that area.[2]
The term is applied both to routine weather variations and to extraordinary spells of heat which may occur only once a century. Severe heat waves have caused catastrophic crop failures, thousands of deaths from hyperthermia, and widespread power outages due to increased use of air conditioning. A heat wave is considered extreme weather, and a danger because heat and sunlight may overheat the human body.
The Odisha model of minimizing damage
After the heavy casualties in 1998, the Odisha government treats it as a disaster on the scale of cyclone or flood.By February-end, the government starts the preparation for fighting heat wave with a single objective in mind: no human casualty. Schools and colleges shift to early morning sessions. They open at 6.30am and end by 12 noon.Government offices also follow the same timings. Examinations are held by March. Public transport does not operate between 12 noon and 3.30pm. Public wage programmes like, MGNREGA is halted from 11.30am to 3.30pm.
A look at the heat wave deaths in Andhra Pradesh and Telengana would reveal that most of the people killed in the two states were labourers at construction sites who continued with their work even when the temperatures were at the peak.
There are other measures in place in Odisha to minimise heat wave impacts. Public health centres keep ice slabs ready to treat stroke patients. Panchayats across the state open water booths.
The state government also puts out continuous advertisements which guide people on how to combat heat wave. Hospitals in cities like Cuttack and Sambalpur deploy extra resources to attend to heat stroke patients. The ambulance network is activated and directed to be ready along the state and national highways. The government takes the help of the civil society in spreading awareness.
During April-June, the government’s state-level and district-level calamity centres continuously monitor the India Meteorological Department (IMD) temperature forecast and devise their strategies at local levels.
In Odisha, not all districts report high temperatures. But districts with high industrial activity report the maximum temperature rise. So, the district authorities devise their own action plans.
Heat wave is predictable and one can easily point out time band and places. We can’t stop it, but we can prepare well to reduce human casualties.

Que. Differentiate between Governor and Lt.Governor under the Indian law.
Ans. In India each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. Governor is the head of the state. Generally, a Governor is appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956, a Governor can be appointed for more than one state.
Lieutenant-Governor is the head of a Union Territory. However the rank is present only in the Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi and Pondicherry (the other territories have an administrator appointed).
Thus, Governors head the State Government in the states while Lieutenant-Governors exist in some union territories and in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors are appointed by the President for a term of 5 years.


Que. Describe the role and importance of Chief Secretary in State Government.
Ans. In India each state and some Union Territories have Chief Secretaries. Chief Secretary serves as head of all government staff in the state and is the Secretary of the State Cabinet of Ministers. The post of Chief Secretary is encadred within the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), meaning that only an IAS officer may hold this position. The Chief Secretary holds the same rank as a Secretary to the Government of India and the post falls within the "Apex Scale". Other positions in this payscale are Additional or Special Chief Secretary and Special Secretary to the Government of India. By tradition the seniormost IAS officer of the state cadre is chosen as the Chief Secretary but in many cases this is not so. The Chief Secretary heads the Department of General Administration as well.
Chief Secretary is appointed by the Chief Minister and the Ministers. Importance of the CS can be seen in these landmark Supreme Court judgments. E.P. Royappa (1974) states that “The post of Chief Secretary is a highly sensitive post…[Chief Secretary is a] lynchpin in the administration and smooth functioning of the administration requires that there should be complete rapport and understanding between the Chief Secretary and the Chief Minister. …” Similarly, Salil Sabhlok (2013) says: “it may be necessary for [the] Chief Minister of a State to appoint a ‘suitable’ person as a Chief Secretary or the Director General of Police…because both the State Government or the Chief Minister and the appointee share a similar vision of the administrative goals and requirements of the State. The underlying premise also is that the State Government or the Chief Minister has confidence that the appointee will deliver the goods, as it were, and both are administratively quite compatible with each other. If there is a loss of confidence or the compatibility comes to an end…”


Que. How can we prevent destruction of public property? Base your answer on the Justice K T Thomas committee report.
Ans. The Union Home Ministry has proposed a set of amendments to the Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act, 1984’ (PDPP) that seek to deter prospective violators from damaging public property during agitations and also make the office bearers of the organizations calling for such agitations responsible for any damage. These amendments follow the recommendations made by the Justice K T Thomas committee setup by the Supreme Court while dealing with a writ petition on this issue.
Damage to Public Property during violent protests is common place across the country. Public Transport Buses and other Public Property are the first victims during such protests. The government of India now proposes to the amend PDPP Act to put in place proper deterrents so as to prevent damage to public property.
Background
Taking a serious note of various instances where there was large scale destruction of public and private properties in the name of agitations, bandhs, hartals and the like, suo motu proceedings were initiated by a Bench of the Supreme Court in 2007. The court appointed two different committees, one headed by former supreme court judge, Justice K T Thomas and the other headed by Mr. Fali S Nariman. The Justice K T Thomas committee recommended:
1. The PDPP Act to contain provision to make the leaders of the organization, which calls the direct action, guilty of abetment of the offence.
2. Enable the police officers to arrange videography of the activities damaging public property
The court accepted these recommendations. The court also issued certain guidelines for effecting preventive action. It said, as soon as a demonstration is organized:
1. The organizer shall meet the police to review and revise the route to be taken and to lay down conditions for a peaceful march or protest
2. All weapons, including knives, lathis and the like shall be prohibited
3. An undertaking is to be provided by the organizers to ensure a peaceful march with marshals at each relevant junction
4. The police and State Government shall ensure videography of such protests to the maximum extent possible
5.In the event that demonstrations turn violent, the officer-in-charge shall ensure that the events are videographed through private operators and also request such further information from the media and others on the incidents in question.

Que. Does Project Mausam have strategic connotations? Answer with an introduction as to what is the project and its contents.
Ans. Project ‘Mausam’ is a multi-disciplinary project that rekindles long-lost ties across nations of the Indian Ocean ‘world’ and forges new avenues of cooperation and exchange. The project, launched by India in partnership with Indian oceran states is a significant step in recording and celebrating this important phase of world history from the African, Arab and Asian-world perspectives.
The project links historic coastal sites of countries in East Africa, along the Persian Gulf, UAE, Qatar, Iran, Myanmar, and Vietnam since the earlier Harappan civilization days - more than 5,000 years ago, to the present.
The Project tries to see how the monsoon winds helped maritime trade which, in turn, encouraged interaction between these Indian Ocean-connected countries. The winds also influenced local economies, scientific quests, modern statecraft, religion, politics and cultural identity.
The project will also record how religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity helped define the boundaries of this Indian Ocean 'world', creating networks of religious travel and pilgrimage through centuries.
This is said to be Indian counter-strategy to China’s Maritime Silk Road in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). Project Mausam is essentially a Ministry of Culture project concerning the creation of cultural links with India’s maritime neighbours. Pursued in concert with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the project’s objective is two-fold: at the macro level to re-connect with the countries of the IOR with the aim of enhancing the understanding of cultural values and concerns; and, at a more localised level, to enable an understanding of national cultures in a regional maritime milieu.
The central themes that hold Project ‘Mausam’ together are those of cultural routes that not only linked different parts of the Indian Ocean littoral, but also connected the coastal centres to their hinterlands.
India's intention to carry out the Mausam project was announced on June 20 at the 38th session of the World Heritage Committee at Doha, Qatar.
Project Mausam is a strategic project aimed at re-establishing India's trade and shipping links with various Indian Ocean states.
India regards Indian Ocean as the key trade route as 90 per cent of its trade by volume and 90 per cent of its oil imports take place through sea.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to three Indian Ocean countries, Seychelles, Mauritius and Sri Lanka in March shows India is following throguh on Project mausam.
The Spice Route refers to revival of old links between 31 countries in Asia and Europe with India, particularly spice-rich Kerala .


Que. Comment on Kargil war and global response to it.
Ans. The Kargil War was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). The conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector.
The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but evidence showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces. The Indian Army, later on supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions. With international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC.
The war, to date, it is the only instance of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear weapon states.
Pakistan was criticised by other countries for instigating the war, as its paramilitary forces and insurgents crossed the Line of Control. Pakistan wanted the world to believe that it was an act of ' "Kashmiri freedom fighters". Veteran analysts argued that the battle was fought at heights where only seasoned troops could survive, so poorly equipped "freedom fighters" would neither have the ability nor the wherewithal to seize land and defend it. Moreover, while the army denied the involvement of its troops in the intrusion, former military dictator General Pervez Musharraf said Pakistan army entered Kargil from four points of which India was not aware(2015 May).Pakistan also attempted to internationalize the Kashmir issue, by linking the crisis in Kargil to the larger Kashmir conflict but, such a diplomatic stance found few backers on the world stage.
As the Indian counter-attacks picked up momentum, Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif flew to meet U.S. President Bill Clinton to obtain support from the United States. Clinton rebuked Sharif, however, and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers from Indian territory. Clinton applauded Indian restraint for not crossing the LoC and escalating the conflict into an all-out war.
G8 nations supported India and condemned the Pakistani violation of the LOC at the Cologne summit. The European Union also opposed Pakistan's violation of the LOC. China, a long-time ally of Pakistan, insisted on a pullout of forces to the pre-conflict positions along the LoC and settling border issues peacefully. Other organizations like the ASEAN Regional Forum too supported India's stand on the inviolability of the LOC.
Que. How can we prevent destruction of public property? Base your answer on the Justice K T Thomas committee report.
Ans. The Union Home Ministry has proposed a set of amendments to the Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act, 1984’ (PDPP) that seek to deter prospective violators from damaging public property during agitations and also make the office bearers of the organizations calling for such agitations responsible for any damage. These amendments follow the recommendations made by the Justice K T Thomas committee setup by the Supreme Court while dealing with a writ petition on this issue.
Damage to Public Property during violent protests is common place across the country. Public Transport Buses and other Public Property are the first victims during such protests. The government of India now proposes to the amend PDPP Act to put in place proper deterrents so as to prevent damage to public property.
Background
Taking a serious note of various instances where there was large scale destruction of public and private properties in the name of agitations, bandhs, hartals and the like, suo motu proceedings were initiated by a Bench of the Supreme Court in 2007. The court appointed two different committees, one headed by former supreme court judge, Justice K T Thomas and the other headed by Mr. Fali S Nariman. The Justice K T Thomas committee recommended:
1. The PDPP Act to contain provision to make the leaders of the organization, which calls the direct action, guilty of abetment of the offence.
2. Enable the police officers to arrange videography of the activities damaging public property
The court accepted these recommendations. The court also issued certain guidelines for effecting preventive action. It said, as soon as a demonstration is organized:
1. The organizer shall meet the police to review and revise the route to be taken and to lay down conditions for a peaceful march or protest
2. All weapons, including knives, lathis and the like shall be prohibited
3. An undertaking is to be provided by the organizers to ensure a peaceful march with marshals at each relevant junction
4. The police and State Government shall ensure videography of such protests to the maximum extent possible
5. In the event that demonstrations turn violent, the officer-in-charge shall ensure that the events are videographed through private operators and also request such further information from the media and others on the incidents in question.

Que. Describe the role and importance of Chief Secretary in State Government.
Ans. In India each state and some Union Territories have Chief Secretaries. Chief Secretary serves as head of all government staff in the state and is the Secretary of the State Cabinet of Ministers. The post of Chief Secretary is encadred within the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), meaning that only an IAS officer may hold this position. The Chief Secretary holds the same rank as a Secretary to the Government of India and the post falls within the "Apex Scale". Other positions in this payscale are Additional or Special Chief Secretary and Special Secretary to the Government of India. By tradition the senior most IAS officer of the state cadre is chosen as the Chief Secretary but in many cases this is not so. The Chief Secretary heads the Department of General Administration as well.
Chief Secretary is appointed by the Chief Minister and the Ministers. Importance of the CS can be seen in these landmark Supreme Court judgments. E.P. Royappa (1974) states that “The post of Chief Secretary is a highly sensitive post…[Chief Secretary is a] lynchpin in the administration and smooth functioning of the administration requires that there should be complete rapport and understanding between the Chief Secretary and the Chief Minister. …” Similarly, Salil Sabhlok (2013) says: “it may be necessary for [the] Chief Minister of a State to appoint a ‘suitable’ person as a Chief Secretary or the Director General of Police…because both the State Government or the Chief Minister and the appointee share a similar vision of the administrative goals and requirements of the State. The underlying premise also is that the State Government or the Chief Minister has confidence that the appointee will deliver the goods, as it were, and both are administratively quite compatible with each other. If there is a loss of confidence or the compatibility comes to an end…”

Que. Differentiate between Governor and Lt.Governor under the Indian law.
Ans. In India each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. Governor is the head of the state. Generally, a Governor is appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956, a Governor can be appointed for more than one state.
Lieutenant-Governor is the head of a Union Territory. However the rank is present only in the Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi and Pondicherry (the other territories have an administrator appointed).
Thus, Governors head the State Government in the states while Lieutenant-Governors exist in some union territories and in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors are appointed by the President for a term of 5 years.

Que. What is Codex Alimentarius? Describe its work.
Ans. The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "Book of Food") is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety.
Its texts are developed and maintained by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a body that was established in 1961 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). World Health Organization (WHO) is associated with it. The Commission's main goals are to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the international food trade. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food safety and consumer protection. As of 2012, there were the 186 members.
The Codex Alimentarius covers all foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw. In addition to standards for specific foods, the Codex Alimentarius contains general standards covering matters such as food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, and procedures for assessing the safety of foods derived from modern biotechnology. It also contains guidelines for the management of official i.e. governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods.
* Remember, Maggie Noodles of Nestle is in news for violating food safety rules in Uttar Pradesh.

What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a new type of money that is almost entirely virtual. It's like an online version of cash. We can use it to buy products and services, but not many shops accept Bitcoin yet.

Is it a currency?
Bitcoin is commonly referred to with terms like: digital currency, digital cash, virtual currency, electronic currency, or crypto currency Its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, used the term electronic cash. Bitcoins have 3 useful qualities in a currency, according to the Economist (2015): they are "hard to earn, limited in supply and easy to verify".

How does Bitcoin work?
Each Bitcoin is basically a computer file which is stored in a 'digital wallet' app on a smartphone or computer. People can send Bitcoins to our digital wallet, and we can send Bitcoins to other people. Every single transaction is recorded in a public list called the blockchain. This makes it possible to trace the history of Bitcoins so people can't spend coins they do not own or make copies.

How do people get Bitcoins?
There are three main ways people get Bitcoins.
• You can buy Bitcoins using 'real' money. At the moment one Bitcoin costs about £500.
• You can sell things and let people pay you with Bitcoins.
• Or they can be created using a computer.

How are new Bitcoins created?
In order for the Bitcoin system to work, people can make their computer process transactions for everybody. The computers are made to work out incredibly difficult sums. Occasionally they are rewarded with a Bitcoin for the owner to keep. People set up powerful computers just to try and get Bitcoins. This is called mining. But the sums are becoming more and more difficult to stop too many Bitcoins being generated. If one started mining now it could be years before she got a single Bitcoin. One could end up spending more money on electricity for your computer than the Bitcoin would be worth.

Why are Bitcoins valuable?
There are many financial assets other than money which we consider valuable like gold and diamonds. The Aztecs used cocoa beans as money! Bitcoins are valuable because people are willing to exchange them for real goods and services, and even cash.

Why do people want Bitcoins?
Some people like the fact that Bitcoin is not controlled by the government or banks. That means there are no taxes or bank fees to pay, at least for now. People can also spend their Bitcoins fairly anonymously. Although all transactions are recorded, nobody would know which 'account number' was yours unless you told them.

Is it secure?
Every transaction is recorded publicly so it's very difficult to copy Bitcoins, make fake ones or spend ones you don't own. It is possible to lose our Bitcoin wallet or delete our Bitcoins and lose them forever. There have also been thefts from websites that let us store our Bitcoins remotely. The value of Bitcoins goes up and down a lot, so it's impossible to say whether it's safe to turn our 'real' money into Bitcoins.

What are the advantages?
• Portfolio diversification
• Another vehicle for savings
• Safe in the face of banks going bankrupt
• Risk-return ratio is high

What are the issues?
1.     RBI should know how much such virtual currency is in circulation as a part of money supply estimates
2.     Money should be accounted for (Income Tax)
3.     It should not be drug or terror money

4.     The use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and media.