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Saturday, May 20, 2017

My Review on "Hope In a Challenged Democracy" by Mr.Ashwani Kumar.


Mr. Ashwani Kumar, the former Law Minister, a legal luminary by himself, with more than a decade of experience in Rajya Sabha, penned down his thoughts and discourses on varied challenges and issues in our democracy in his new book, "Hope In a Challenged Democracy".

            His illustrating career in the UPA reflected in his writings. His tried to present his views in simple and lucid language to break the stereotype in understanding issues and framing opinions mostly cultured by media.His expositions in writings, though reflects his knowledge but failed to devoid his Congress Men mark. His ability to convince reader with his arguments by citing constitutional law is laudable. It makes us captured by his views.But, his ideas on RTI and Lokpal unable to address the real scenario of Corruption, Nepotism and Political servitude in our nation, here he is sided by administrative and legal challenges.

            He emphasized the virtue of mean in democracy, by presenting the case of three pillars of our constitution, state versus people,majority versus minority, national versus international, need versus state capacity.He tried to remind us the need to acknowledge the diversity of opinions for a inclusive nation building by touching the Extremism,Justice,Privacy, and Freedom.
           Mr. Ashwani Kumar, tried to touch possibly everything under the "State of the nation,Constitution, Dynamics of Diplomacy and Transforming the economy" in his book.He provided a statesman's perspective on addressing challenges and optimizing responses with a view on transforming our democracy with collective conscience of our nation.

          He expounded his vision by discussing from past, present and future of our course as Sovereign Socialist, Secular,Democratic,Republic India in international community. Its help us to critically evaluate our nation and our ideas to get the iota of  difference in our thinking as an outsider of power kegs.


         One should read this book with an open mind to get a new perspective,contrary to that had impounded upon us by emotions, ideas, situations, and media. This book hold good for everyone who concerned with state of our nation and the world today.

Thanks to the WisdomTree publications for presenting me with an another opportunity to write a review on a book written by such distinguished personality.


Tuesday, April 18, 2017

GST what it is all about : profitbooks.net

1) What is Goods and Service Tax (GST)?

It is a destination based tax on consumption of goods and services. It is proposed to be levied at all stages right from manufacture up to final consumption with credit of taxes paid at previous stages available as setoff. In a
nutshell, only value addition will be taxed and burden of tax is to be borne by the final consumer.

2) What are GST rate slabs?

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) will be levied at multiple rates ranging from 0 per cent to 28 per cent. GST Council finalised a four-tier GST tax structure of 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%, with lower rates for essential items and the highest for luxury and de-merits goods that would also attract an additional cess.
Service Tax will go up from 15% to 18%. The services being taxed at lower rates, owing to the provision of abatement, such as train tickets, will fall in the lower slabs.
In order to control inflation, essential items including food, which presently constitute roughly half of the consumer inflation basket, will be taxed at zero rate.
The lowest rate of 5% would be for common use items. There would be two standard rates of 12 per cent and 18 per cent, which would fall on the bulk of the goods and services. This includes fast-moving consumer goods.
Highest tax slab will be applicable to items which are currently taxed at 30-31% (excise duty plus VAT).
Ultra luxuries, demerit and sin goods (like tobacco and aerated drinks), will attract a cess for a period of five years on top of the 28 per cent GST.
The collection from this cess as well as that of the clean energy cess would create a revenue pool which would be used for compensating states for any loss of revenue during the first five years of implementation of GST.
Finance minister said that the cess would be lapsable after five years.
The structure to agreed is a compromise to accommodate demand for highest tax rate of 40% by states like Kerala.
While the Centre proposed to levy a 4% GST on gold but the final decision on this was put off. During a press conference, finance minister Mr. Jaitley said, “GST rate on gold will be finalised after the fitting to the approved rates structure of all items is completed and there is some idea of revenue projections”.
The principle for determining the rate on each item will be to levy and collect the GST at the rate slab closest to the current tax incidence on it.
The GST will subsume the multitude of cesses currently in place, including the Swachh Bharat Cess, the Krishi Kalyan Cess and the Education Cess. Only the Clean Environment Cess is being retained, revenues from which will also fund the compensations.

3) Which of the existing taxes are proposed to be subsumed under GST?

GST is set to replace various taxes as mentioned below:
Taxes currently levied and collected by the Centre:State taxes that would be subsumed under the GST
a. Central Excise duty
b. Duties of Excise (Medicinal and Toilet Preparations)
c. Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance)
d. Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Products)
e. Additional Duties of Customs (commonly known as CVD)
f. Special Additional Duty of Customs (SAD)
g. Service Tax
h. Central Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services

a. State VAT
b. Central Sales Tax
c. Luxury Tax
d. Entry Tax (all forms)
e. Entertainment and Amusement Tax (except when
levied by the local bodies)
f. Taxes on advertisements
g. Purchase Tax
h. Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling
i. State Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to
supply of goods and services


The GST Council shall make recommendations to the Union and States on the taxes, cesses and surcharges levied by the Centre, the States and the local bodies which may be subsumed in the GST.

4) What will be status of Tobacco and Tobacco products under the GST regime?

Tobacco and tobacco products would be subject to GST. In addition, the Centre would have the power to levy Central Excise duty on these products.

Commodities Proposed to be kept outside GSTAlcohol for human consumption, Petroleum Products viz. petroleum crude, motor spirit (petrol), high speed diesel, natural gas and aviation turbine fuel &
Electricity.
Taxation of such Commodities in GST RegimeThe existing taxation system (VAT & Central Excise) will continue in respect of the above commodities.


5) What type of GST is proposed to be implemented?

It would be a dual GST with the Centre and States simultaneously levying it on a common tax base. The GST to be levied by the Centre on intra-State supply of goods and / or services would be called the Central GST (CGST) and that to be levied by the States would be called the State GST (SGST). Similarly Integrated GST (IGST) will be levied and administered by Centre on every inter-state supply of goods and services.

6) Why is Dual GST required?

India is a federal country where both the Centre and the States have been assigned the powers to levy and collect taxes through appropriate legislation. Both the levels of Government have distinct responsibilities to perform according to the division of powers prescribed in the Constitution for which they need to raise resources. A dual GST will, therefore, be in keeping with the Constitutional requirement of fiscal federalism.

7) Which authority will levy and administer GST?

Centre will levy and administer CGST & IGST while respective states will levy and administer SGST.

8) How a particular transaction of goods and services would be taxed simultaneously under Central GST (CGST) and State GST (SGST)?

The Central GST and the State GST would be levied simultaneously on every transaction of supply of goods and services except the exempted goods and services, goods which are outside the purview of GST and the transactions
which are below the prescribed threshold limits. Further, 8 both would be levied on the same price or value unlike State VAT which is levied on the value of the goods inclusive of CENVAT. While the location of the supplier and the
recipient within the country is immaterial for the purpose of CGST, SGST would be chargeable only when the supplier and the recipient are both located within the State.

Illustration I: Suppose hypothetically that the rate of CGST is 10% and that of SGST is 10%. When a wholesale dealer of steel in Uttar Pradesh supplies steel bars and rods to a construction company which is also located within the same State for, say Rs. 100, the dealer would charge CGST of Rs. 10 and SGST of Rs. 10 in addition to the basic price of the goods.
He would be required to deposit the CGST component into a Central Government account while the SGST portion into the account of the concerned State Government. Of course, he need not actually pay Rs. 20 (Rs.10 + Rs. 10 ) in cash as he would be entitled to set-off this liability against the CGST or SGST paid on his purchases (say, inputs). But for paying CGST he would be allowed to use only the credit of CGST paid on his purchases while for SGST he can utilize the credit of SGST alone.
In other words, CGST credit cannot, in general, be used for payment of SGST. Nor can SGST credit be used for payment of CGST.

Illustration II: Suppose, again hypothetically, that the rate of CGST is 10% and that of SGST is 10%. When an advertising company located in Mumbai supplies advertising services to a company manufacturing soap also located within the State of Maharashtra for, let us say Rs. 100, the ad company would charge CGST of Rs. 10 as well as SGST of Rs. 10 to the basic value of the service.
He would be required to deposit the CGST component into a Central Government account while the SGST portion into the account of the concerned State Government. Of course, he need not again actually pay Rs. 20 (Rs. 10+Rs. 10) in cash as it would be entitled to set-off this liability against the CGST or SGST paid on his purchase (say, of inputs such as stationery, office equipment, services of an artist etc). But for paying CGST he would be allowed to use only the credit of CGST paid on its purchase while for SGST he can utilise the credit of SGST alone.
In other words, CGST credit cannot, in general, be used for payment of SGST. Nor can SGST credit be used for payment of CGST.

9) What are the benefits which the Country will accrue from GST?

Introduction of GST would be a very significant step in the field of indirect tax reforms in India. By amalgamating a large number of Central and State taxes into a single tax and allowing set-off of prior-stage taxes, it would mitigate the ill effects of cascading and pave the way for a common national market. For the consumers, the biggest gain would be in terms of a reduction in the overall tax burden on goods, which is currently estimated at 25%-30%.
Introduction of GST would also make our products competitive in the domestic and international markets. Studies show that this would instantly spur economic growth. There may also be revenue gain for the Centre and the States due to widening of the tax base, increase in trade volumes and improved 10 tax compliance. Last but not the least, this tax, because of its transparent character, would be easier to administer.

10) What is IGST?

Under the GST regime, an Integrated GST (IGST) would be levied and collected by the Centre on inter-State supply of goods and services. Under Article 269A of the Constitution, the GST on supplies in the course of inter-
State trade or commerce shall be levied and collected by the Government of India and such tax shall be apportioned between the Union and the States in the manner as may be provided by Parliament by law on the recommendations of
the Goods and Services Tax Council.

11) Who will decide rates for levy of GST?

The CGST and SGST would be levied at rates to be jointly decided by the Centre and States. The rates would be notified on the recommendations of the GST Council.

12) What would be the role of GST Council?

A GST Council would be constituted comprising the Union Finance Minister (who will be the Chairman of the Council), the Minister of State (Revenue) and the State Finance/Taxation Ministers to make recommendations to the Union and the States on
(i) the taxes, cesses and surcharges levied by the Centre, the States and the local bodies which may be subsumed under GST;
(ii) the goods and services that may be subjected to or exempted from the GST;
(iii) the date on which the GST shall be levied on petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor sprit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel;
(iv) model GST laws, principles of levy, apportionment of IGST and the principles that govern the place of supply;
(v) the threshold limit of turnover below which the goods and services may be exempted from GST;
(vi) the rates including floor rates with bands of GST;
(vii) any special rate or rates for a specified period to raise additional resources during any natural calamity or disaster;
(viii) special provision with respect to the North- East States, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand; and
(ix) any other matter relating to the GST, as the Council may decide.


13) Who is liable to pay GST under the proposed GST regime?

Under the GST regime, tax is payable by the taxable person on the supply of goods and/or services. Liability to pay tax arises when the taxable person crosses the threshold exemption, i.e. Rs.10 lakhs (Rs. 5 lakhs for NE States) except in certain specified cases where the taxable person is liable to pay GST even though he has not crossed the threshold limit. The CGST / SGST is payable on all intra-State supply of goods and/or services and IGST is payable on all inter- State supply of goods and/or services. The CGST /SGST and IGST are payable at the rates specified in the Schedules to the respective Acts.

14) What are the benefits available to small tax payers under the GST regime?

Tax payers with an aggregate turnover in a financial year up to [Rs.10 lakhs] would be exempt from tax.
[Aggregate turnover shall include the aggregate value of all taxable and non-taxable supplies, exempt supplies and exports of goods and/or services and exclude taxes viz.GST.]
Aggregate turnover shall be computed on all India basis. For NE States and Sikkim, the exemption threshold shall be [Rs. 5 lakhs]. All taxpayers eligible for threshold exemption will have the option of paying tax with input tax credit (ITC) benefits. Tax payers making inter-State supplies or paying tax on reverse charge basis shall not be eligible for threshold exemption.

15) How will the goods and services be classified under GST regime? What is HSN under GST?

HSN (Harmonised System of Nomenclature) code shall be used for classifying the goods under the GST regime. Taxpayers whose turnover is above Rs. 1.5 crores but below Rs. 5 crores shall use 2 digit code and the taxpayers whose turnover is Rs. 5 crores and above shall use 4 digit code. Taxpayers whose turnover is below Rs. 1.5 crores are not required to mention HSN Code in their invoices. Services will be classified as per the Services Accounting Code (SAC)

16) How will imports be taxed under GST?

Imports of Goods and Services will be treated as inter-state supplies and IGST will be levied on import of goods and services into the country. The incidence of tax will follow the destination principle and the tax revenue in
case of SGST will accrue to the State where the imported goods and services are consumed. Full and complete set-off 14 will be available on the GST paid on import on goods and services.

17) How will Exports be treated under GST?

Exports will be treated as zero rated supplies. No tax will be payable on exports of goods or services, however credit of input tax credit will be available and same will be available as refund to the exporters.

18) What is the scope of composition scheme under GST?

Small taxpayers with an aggregate turnover in a financial year up to [Rs. 50 lakhs] shall be eligible for composition levy. Under the scheme, a taxpayer shall
pay tax as a percentage of his turnover during the year without the benefit of ITC. The floor rate of tax for CGST and SGST shall not be less than [1%]. A tax payer opting for composition levy shall not collect any tax from his customers. Tax payers making inter- state supplies or paying tax on reverse charge basis shall not be eligible for composition scheme.
Please note that the composition scheme is optional.

19) What is GSTN and its role in the GST regime?

GSTN stands for Goods and Service Tax Network (GSTN). A Special Purpose Vehicle called the GSTN has been set up to cater to the needs of GST. The GSTN shall provide a shared IT infrastructure and services to Central and State Governments, tax payers and other stakeholders for implementation of GST. The functions of the GSTN would, inter alia, include:
  • facilitating registration;
  • forwarding the returns to Central and State authorities;
  • computation and settlement of IGST;
  • matching of tax payment details with banking network;
  • providing various MIS reports to the Central and the State Governments based on the tax payer return information;
  • providing analysis of tax payers’ profile; and
  • running the matching engine for matching, reversal and reclaim of input tax credit.

The GSTN is developing a common GST portal and applications for registration, payment, return and MIS/ reports. The GSTN would also be integrating the common GST portal with the existing tax administration IT systems
and would be building interfaces for tax payers. Further, the GSTN is developing back-end modules like assessment, audit, refund, appeal etc. for 19 States and UTs (Model II States). The CBEC and Model I States (15 States) are themselves developing their GST back-end systems. Integration of GST front-end system with back-end systems will have to be completed and tested well in advance for making the transition smooth.

20) How are the disputes going to be resolved under the GST regime?

The Constitution (one hundred and first amendment) Act, 2016 provides that the Goods and Services Tax Council shall establish a mechanism to adjudicate any dispute 16 (a) between the Government of India and one or more States; or (b) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other Sates on the other side; or (c) between two or more States, arising out of the recommendations of the Council or implementation thereof.

India defense excersises

Indian Navy Joint Exercises
Varuna naval exercise is joint exercise of navies of France and India.
SLINEX.-Sri Lanka India Naval Exercise
INDRA is a joint, bi-annual military exercise conducted by India and Russia
Exercise Malabar is a bilateral naval exercise involving the United States and India.
Simbex - Indian Navy with Republic of Singapore Navy
IBSAMAR with the Brazil and South African navies.
KONKAN - A bilateral Naval Exercise  between Indian Navy and Royal Navy of Britain
AUSINDEX-Indian and Australian Navy Bilateral Maritime Exercise
Sahyog-Kaijin -Joint exercise of Coast Guards of India and Japan
Naseem Al Bahr - Joint navy exercise of  India and Oman

Indian Air Force Joint Exercises
The joint India-UK air exercises are known as the “Indradhanush” or “Rainbow”.
India-France Air Exercise “Garuda".
Avia Indra-2014-  the India-Russia maiden aerial exercise.

Indian Army Joint Exercises
Mithra Shakti exercise- India and Sri Lanka.
Hand-in-Hand. -India-China joint military training exercise
Exercise Shakti - India and France armies
Exercise Nomadic Elephant- Indian Army exercises with the Mongolian Army.
Exercise Yuddh Abhyas is a series of joint exercises between the Indian and United States Armies since 2005.
Surya Kiran - India Nepal joint military exercise
LAMITYE- India and Seychelles
Prabal Dostyk - India Kazhakhstan Joint exercise
Al-Nagah- Joint military exercise between Indian and Oman

Tuesday, November 15, 2016

What's De monetisation means for a common Man ?

De Monetisation : What difference it's make for a common man ?

As an aspiring Bureaucrat may be you think my view is biased towards Government,
but fats are facts.

The withdrawal of 500 and 1000 rupee notes will certainly help economy. It's directly assault the Money laundering as they hold billions roughly 2 lakh crore a very very conservative estimate of rupees in cash. Black money  will be wiped out from our economy, as they have no chance to exchange.

The RBI will issue any notes with a legal tender, roughly 17 lakh crore is in the form of 1000 and 500 rupees notes. Due to this demonetisation at max we will get back 10 to 12 lack crore back into the system with new notes. then what is the fate of remaining 5 to 7 lakh crore. It's a net profit to the RBI.. The RBI can issue this money back in to the system by paying back to government as Dividend.
So Union Government get 7 lacks crore in its kitty.

BUT THE COMMON MAN IS SUFFERING. GOVERNMENT GETS MONEY but WHAT I AS A COMMON MAN will GET. I AM STANDING IN QUE's FOR HOURS AND HOURS.

Any army men also doesnot have any personal enimity with Terrorist and Pak Army but why he need to die in Uri Attacks like incidents.

So Dear common MAN ( including me),

Government hadn't taken this action as one stroke if you clearly absorb a series of action had taken to streamline this process.

1) PMJDY - Opening of bank accounts to all un banked section of India roughly 21.6 crore. So they can have bank accounts to deposit and exchange money. Rupay cards are also given to this accounts.
So if hadn't open the account sorry it's your mistake some extent and officers too.

2) Seeding of AADHAR to all accounts and PAN to most of them, to trace each of the account for all means, even  with legislative backing.

3) IDS Scheme To give final to correct their mistake and make there money white.

4) Master stroke De Monetisation.
Apart of all these Government is pushing for DIGITAL INDIA, online money transactions Digital payments systems. As a part of this move RBI brought UNIFIED PAYMENT INTERFACE.

Hope you find a link of all this actions now...

Q) But most of the money is in Swiss bank and in Benami properties.

Yes, It is. As per the Transparency International - Global Corruption perception Index India rank 76 out of 170 nations, We had improved our rank about 16 places from past two years. A conservative estimate of 400 billion dollars would be black money in India. But we have Benami transaction law is in place Supreme Court has already formed SIT on it. We had already made amendment to Bilateral Investment treaty to. Mauritius which apply to Singapore too. So they won't be any TREATY SHOPPING.   Apart of all that, Modi already hinted that it's just the beginning more is coming out. So, sure they are enough actions are already in pipeline.

Government efforts to bring Real estate regulator will help to reduce the black money  in this sector.

The ongoing elections especially UP  and other 5 states will get rid of free flow of black money. As we all know what the election really means in India.. Buying and Selling.

LET COMES TO GOVERNMENT KITTY AGAIN THE SO CALLED 5 to 7 lacks crore.
Government can use this money first to Re-capitalise Banks with 2 lacks crore.
Remaining money is used for HOUSING FOR ALL Scheme,So 3 crore houses to all by 2022. It's will boost the Cement, transport, Real-estate,Banking, Steel and many sectors so supplementary benefit boost to economy and More and More JOBS.

New Colleges Schools and Hospitals, Ports and Railways all will have spill over effects on economy. Just refer the China crack down on Corruption along with past stories of Singapore and Thailand.

Internationally it will boost India status as corruption free and transparent economy so More Investment One of the reason why we are poorly performing in Global competitiveness report and Ease of Doing business rankings.

The irony is even the worlds media like China's Global times and Singapore press is praising this move but we as Indias unable to support this.

You can see the result here:
RBI has recently published information about the money deposited in the banks in 3 days,
(amounts in crores)'
Top 10 banks:
1. SBI                                 53,652
2. Central bank of India 49,644
3. PNB                               42,877
4. HDFC                            39,548
5. ICICI                              32,867
6. Bank of India               29,876
7. Bank of Baroda           25,765
8. Axis Bank                     18,768
9. Union Bank                  16,555
10. Andhra Bank             14,321

Amount deposited in Post offices                               36,009 Crores.

More and more money to the banking system. So what is for a common man to celebrate. Yes, he has, It will helps the banks to decrease the INTEREST rates, a direct benefit to common man. now he can get money to his plans of Higher education, New own home, for business and for others.

See how the news are coming more and more JANDHAN accounts which are laying at zero balance sometime back now getting 49000 rupees each because if you deposit 5000 you need to give PAN number. They can use this money by themselves if the original holder of the money ask for return simply call the Tax men they will help you.

Dear India's , We bearded the plunder of British for 200 years. We seen scams right for Mundhra Scam, Jeep scam from the very year of Independence to recent Coal - 2 lacks crore 2G -1.76 lack crore etc.
India is home for 40 % of undernourished children in South Asia, 37 % of our children are shunted and 22 % wasted. We have 21.9 % of poverty even if you take 40/- for urban areas and 28 rupees for rural areas per capita daily expenditure.
If you consider world bank 1.25 $ as bench mark we may easily end and 40%.

We have 18% of population of World (125 crore) with just 2.6 % of land mass. We all know how hard it is to earn a daily meal to our tummy.
As I preparing for Civil services I deeply analysed and read about what the INDIA is.

It's IMPOSSIBLE TO ANY ONE TO CHANGE THIS COUNTRY WITH OUT ANY PAIN IN JUST A NIGHT. ITS NEEDS TIME. LET SUPPORT THIS MOVE. WE ALL ARE VICTIMS OF CORRUPTION ONE DAY AN ANOTHER.
By this move if at least 1000 crore of corrupted money will come out.. Then Yes we are in right path.

Sunday, October 9, 2016

AIR spotlight summary on “India ratifies Paris climate Agreement” : Insights

Introduction
India ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change by depositing the instrument of ratification with the United Nations on the 147th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. India is the 62nd country to ratify the agreement. The agreement will enter into force one month after 55 countries that account for 55 percent of global emissions ratify the agreement.
Paris Agreement on Climate Change
  • This treaty which was agreed in Paris convention took 20 years to come to an agreement. There were divergent views, particularly among the industrialised countries and developing countries. Ironing out of differences took lot of time. The treaty has come out that there is auniversal need and acceptance that something has to be done to contain the rise of the global temperature within 2 degree centigrade.
  • For its operationalisation, the Paris Agreement requires the signing and ratification by at least 55 countries which together account for at least 55 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Both conditions need to be met. Once these conditions are fulfilled, the Agreement would come into effect regardless of the number of countries that remain outside. The Agreement only needs slightly more than 3 percentage points to reach the 55 per cent threshold.     
  • The Green Climate Fund is too small as compared to the needs and programmes that are envisaged. It is important that the developed countries should pass on the technology, knowhow, and wherewithal for having energy efficient technologies.
  • Kyoto protocol had an unfortunate fate. Countries have not adhered to their commitments and have full faulted on that. That is reason we find continuous CO2 emissions.
  • The COP-22 will be held in morocco. The information and the experience will be exchanged and get to know the ways and means to achieve the targets.
Significance of the ratification of Paris Agreement
  • This is been the major and seminal development to maintain the global climate and reducing the growing temperature which is really a great threat to the mankind, livelihood, health and productivity of the biosphere.
  • IPCC study says that beyond 2 degree centigrade rise of the earth’s temperature, then it would be difficult situation, irreversible and will go out of hand.
  • All the countries which have submitted their INDCs will be taken on board and they have the commitment to adhere to INDCs and take corresponding measures in their countries to meet those expected commitments. India has to work hard to achieve the commitments made.
India’s Role
  • India’s commitments of 100 GW of solar energy, 60 GW of wind energy and by 2022 we would have about 40% of our energy needs to be met from non-fossil fuel energy sources.
  • NITI Ayog study says that with the growth scenario of 8%, our energy needs would grow and even then India won’t be high CO2 emitter. It would be much less than the global average. The global average would be 5 to 6 tonnes per capita while we would not exceed more than 4.4 tonnes.
  • India needs finance, technology and capacity building support. The climate finance goalsthat have been set have not yet been met.
  • India is working towards replacing fossil fuels with non fossil fuel sources and increasing the energy efficiency. More than 6.5 crores LED bulbs are distributed and this has resulted into more than 4000 MW of electricity saving and saving on per day expenditure. The greening of highways, where plantation of trees is envisaged which will sequester the CO2.
  • Industry is progressively improving on energy intensity. We have to continue to make our progress to achieve the targets and demonstrate to the public and world at large that we are able to do it.
  • India ratified the agreement on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi who led a simple life and who exemplified simplicity. Through this the world is getting a message that there is a need for change in life style particularly the developed world where their lifestyle is considered extravagant.
  • Without losing much it is possible to contain our energy use and emission of CO2. The underlying message of using this day is only to say that the idealism of Mahatma Gandhi is really helpful, provide a philosophical support and guide to contain our energy needs, at the same time improve the quality of life and welfare of the people.
  • The silver lining is that the prizes of solar energy is coming down which instils hope to make faster progress. The targets on generating energy through renewable has to be revised upwards.

India and Sri lanka relations : Insights

Introduction
Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe visited India to discuss wide range of issues and to attend India Economic Summit.  His visit assumes significance as India had pulled out of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Summit, scheduled to be held in Islamabad in November.
The issue on SAARC Summit
  • India first decided that it will not attend the SAARC summit. That was immediately followed by Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The statement made by Sri Lanka was significant. It said the conditions are not conducive to hold a successful summit.
  • Bangladesh Prime minister said that the SARCC process is jeopardised and is not good for the region and smaller countries get adversely affected. There is much tension between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Historical and Cultural Relations
  • The ties between both the countries are very old. 70% of Sri Lankans are Theravada Buddhist and Emperor Ashoka’s son Mahinda who took Buddhism to Sri Lanka. For many matters in terms of Buddhism we find excellent records in Sri Lanka.
  • Large number of tourists especially Buddhists visit
  • Even during freedom struggle there was close cooperation between Sri Lankan leaders and Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru.
Economic Relations
  • India has strong and well structured bilateral relation with Sri Lanka. We have FTA between both the countries which are doing very well. We should strengthen SARRC, but if there are difficulties we should follow bilateral route and pursue our goals.
  • India has been a major giver of development loans and line of credit to Sri Lanka. Almost one-sixth of India’s development loans go to Sri Lanka.
  • There is considerable private sector investment from India in Sri Lanka and from Sri Lanka into India. The areas both of cooperation between both the countries are petroleum, Information Technology, Financial Services, Real estate, telecom, hospitals, tourism, banking, food processing etc.
  • Sri Lanka has invested in Vishakhapatnam in garments. So it is a two way relationship which is a sustainable one.
  • Indian railways are offering special package for Sri Lankan tourists to come to India. India has introduced e-visa for Sri Lanka. Indians find Sri Lanka very attractive.
  • Sri Lanka is the closest friend and neighbour. In 2014 our bilateral trade was $4.6 billion. India is the fourth biggest investor in Sri Lanka. Since 2003 we have invested about $1 billion in Sri Lanka.
Political Relations
  • The President and Prime minister team of Sri Lanka is having good rapport with Indian leadership.
Fishermen Issue
  • The constant and frequent issue of fisherman and recently 5 Indian fishermen were picked up by the Sri Lankan Navy. The fishermen dispute is inevitable between neighbours. Indian Fishermen entering Sri Lankan water is not with any particular intention. What is important is that the two governments and the fishermen associations of both the sides must take care of these incidents and can be contained.     
  • Both countries have signed an MOU to equip the fishermen and give them nets and necessary things to help them carry out their trade better and more peacefully.
  • Sri Lanka has taken the position that big fishing trawlers should not be used which is scientific and without which we may lose the fish yield.
Developments in Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka has progressed in the Health sector. When they became independent, they were supposed to be one of the worst affected regions affected by malaria. Now they are declaredmalaria free. This is a lesson to be learnt for India.
  • Social development indicators are quite high in literacy, health indicators, etc. They have made considerable progress.
Conclusion
Both countries are firm in maintaining their Democracy. There is scope for making the relationship richer, broadening and deepening it.